Oren Eini

CEO of RavenDB

a NoSQL Open Source Document Database

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oren@ravendb.net +972 52-548-6969

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time to read 1 min | 101 words

When Oren Eini originally developed RavenDB, he used the Lucene library to implement indexing. Eventually, his team encountered limitations with this strategy, so they created the Corax search engine, which improved query execution time significantly. Oren discusses the challenges involved in creating this engine and the approaches they took to overcome these challenges.

Part 1:

Part 2:

time to read 4 min | 792 words

RavenDB can run on the Raspberry Pi, it is actually an important use case for us when our users are deploying RavenDB as part of Internet of Things systems. We wanted to showcase RavenDB’s performance and decided that instead of scaling up and showing you how well RavenDB does ridiculous loads, we’ll go the other way around. We’ll go small, and let you directly experience how efficient RavenDB is.

You can look at the demo unit directly on this page.

We decided to dial it down yet further, and run RavenDB on the Raspberry Pi Zero.

This tiny computer is about the size of a cigarette lighter and is small enough to comfortably fit on your keychain. Most Raspberry Pis are impressive machines given their cost, more than powerful enough to power real applications.

Here is what this actually looks like, with me as a reference for size 🙂.

However, just installing RavenDB on the Zero isn't much of a challenge or particularly interesting, to be honest. We wanted to do something that would be both fun and useful. One of the features we want users to explore is the ability to run RavenDB in appliance mode. The question is, what sort of an appliance will we build?

A key part of our thinking was that we wanted to show something that works with realistic data sizes. We wanted to have an actual use case for this, beyond just showing a toy. One of the things that I always find maddening about being disconnected is that I feel like half my brain has been cut away.

We set out to fix that, the project is to create a knowledge system inside the Pi Zero that would be truly Plug & Play. That turned out to be quite a challenge, but I think we met it in a very nice manner.

We went to archive.org and got some of the Stack Exchange data sets. In particular, we got the datasets that are most interesting for DevOps scenarios. In particular, we have raspberrypi.stackexchange.com, unix.stackexchange.com, serverfault.com, and superuser.com.

I find it deliciously recursive that we can use the Raspberry Pi Zero to store the dataset about the Raspberry Pi itself. We loaded all those datasets into the Zero, for a total of about 7.5 GB, and over 4.2 million documents were stored there.

Note that this is using RavenDB’s document compression, which reduced the total size by over 50% over the original dataset size.

Next was the time to actually make this accessible. Just working with RavenDB directly to query the data is cool, for sure, but we wanted to be useful.

So we built a portal to access the data. Here is what it looks like when you enter it for the first time:

We offer full search capabilities and complete offline access to all those data sets. Perfect when you are stuck in the middle of nowhere and urgently need to remember that awk syntax or how to configure networking on a stubborn device.

Another aspect that we have to consider is how this can work? The Raspberry Pi Zero is a tiny device, and actually working with it can be annoying. It needs Micro-USB power but has no ethernet or standard USB ports. For display, it uses a mini HDMI port. That means that you can safely assume that you’re likely to have a power cable for it, but not much else.

We want to provide a good solution, so what do we do? The Raspberry Pi Zero we use does have a wifi chip, so we took things further and set it up as an access point with a captive portal.

You can read exactly how we configured that in this post.

In other words, the expected deployment model is to plug this into power, wait 30 seconds for the machine to boot, and then connect to the “Hugin” wireless network. You will then land directly into the application, able to deep dive into the questions of your choice.

We have been giving away those appliances at the DevWeek conference, and we got a really good reaction from users. Beyond the coolness factor, the fact that we can run a high-performance system on top of a… challenging hardware platform (512MB RAM, 1Ghz RAM, SD Card for disk) and still provide sub-100ms response times is quite amazing.

You can view the project page here, the entire thing is Open Source, and you can explore how we are able to do that on GitHub.

time to read 1 min | 183 words

Designer (2)

I recently talked about how RavenDB is now using ZStd as the default compression algorithm for backups. That led to a reduction both in the amount of storage we are consuming for backups and a significant reduction in the time to actually run the backups.

We have been exploring where else we can get those benefits and the changes were recently released in RavenDB 6.0.2.

RavenDB now supports ZStd for HTTP compression, which you can control using the DocumentConventions.HttpCompressionAlgorithm.

You can find all the gory details about the performance impact in the release announcement here.

The really nice thing is that you can expect to see about a 50% reduction in the amount of bandwidth being used at comparable or better timings. That is especially true if you are using bulk inserts, where the benefit is most noticeable.

If you are running on the cloud, that matters a lot, since a reduction in bandwidth to and from the database translates directly into dollars being saved.

time to read 2 min | 235 words


If you are reading this blog, I assume that you are a like-minded person. My idea of relaxation is to sit and write code. Hopefully on something that I’m not familiar with. I have many such blog post series covering topics I care about. It’s my idea of meditation.

For the end of 2023, I thought that we could do something similar but on a broader scale. A while ago Alex Klaus wrote a walkthrough on how to build a complete application from scratch using modern best practices (and RavenDB). We refreshed the code and made it widely available, offering you something fun , educational, and productive to engage with.

The system is a bug tracker (allowing us to focus on the architecture rather than domain concerns), and you can play with a deployed version live. The code is available under the MIT license, and we’ll be very happy to receive any suggested improvements.

Topics that are covered:

  1. Building an enterprise application with the .NET and RavenDB

  2. Non-Relational Data Modeling Through Domain Driven Design Prism

  3. Hidden side of document IDs in RavenDB

  4. Dynamic Fields for Indexing

  5. Entity Relationships in non-relational database (one-to-many, many-to-many)

  6. Multi-tenant database in NoSQL

  7. Database Integration Testing – The Secret Recipe

As usual, I would love any feedback you have to offer.

time to read 6 min | 1070 words

With the release of RavenDB 6.0, we are now starting to focus on smaller features. The first one out of the gate, part of RavenDB 6.0.1 release, is actually a set of enhancements around making backups faster, smaller and cheaper.

I just checked, and the core backup behavior of RavenDB hasn't changed much since 2010(!). In other words, decisions that were made almost 14 years ago are still in effect. There have been a… number of changes in both RavenDB, its operating environment and the size of the database that we deal with.

In the past year, we ran into a number of cases where people working with datasets in the high hundreds of GB to low TB range had issues with backups. In particular, with the duration of backups. After the 6.0 release, we had the capacity to do a lot more about this, so we took a look.

On first impression, you would expect that backing up a database whose size exceeds 750GB will take… a while. And indeed, it does. The question is, why? It’s a lot of data, sure. But where does the time go?

The format of RavenDB backups is really simple. It is just a GZipped JSON file. The contents are treated as a JSON stream that contains all the data in the database. This has a number of advantages, the file size is small, the format itself lends itself well to extension, it is streamable, etc. In fact, it is a testament to the early design decision that we haven’t really had to touch that in so long.

Given that the format is stable, and that we have a lot of experience with producing JSON, we approach the task of optimizing the backups with a good idea where we should go. The problem is likely with I/O (we need to go through the entire database, after all). There were some (pretty wild) ideas flying around on how to address this, but the first thing to do, of course, was to run it under the profiler.

The results, as you can imagine, were not what we expected. It turns out that we spend quite a lot of the time inside of GZip, compressing the data. It turns out that when we set up the backup format all those years ago, we chose GZip and Optimal compression mode. In other words, we wanted the file size to be as small as possible. That… makes sense, of course. But it turns out that the vast majority of the time is actually spent compressing the data?

Time to start looking deeper into that. GZip is an old format (it came out in 1992!). And recently there have been a number of new compression algorithms (Zstd, Brotli, etc). We decided to look into those in detail. GZip also has several modes that affect compression ratio vs. compression time.

After a bit of experimentation, we have the following details when backing up a 35GB database.

Algorithm & Mode    



GZip - Optimal

5.9 GB

6 min, 40 sec

GZip - Fastest

6.6 GB

4 min, 7 sec

ZStd - Fastest

4.1 GB

3 min, 1 sec

The data in this case is mostly textual (JSON), and it turns out that we can reduce the backup time by more than half while saving 30% in the space we take. Those are some nice numbers.

You’ll note that ZStd also has a mode that controls compression ratio vs compression time. We tried checking this as well on a different dataset (a snapshot of the actual database) with a size of 25.5GB and we got:

Algorithm & Mode   



ZStd - Fastest

2.18 GB

56 sec

ZStd - Optimal

1.98 GB

1 min, 41 sec

GZip - Optimal

2.99 GB

3 min, 50 sec

As you can see, GZip isn’t going to get a participation trophy at this point, coming dead last for both size and time.

In short, RavenDB 6.0.1 will use the new ZStd compression algorithm for backups (and export files),  and you can expect to have greatly reduced backup times as well as smaller backups overall.

This is now the default mode for RavenDB 6.0.1 or higher, but you can control that in the backup settings if you so wish.


Restoring from old backups is no issue, of course, but restoring a ZStd backup on an older version of RavenDB is not supported. You can configure RavenDB to use the GZip algorithm if that is required.

Another feature that is going to improve backup performance is the notion of backup mode, which you can see in the image above. RavenDB backups support multiple destinations, so you can back up to Amazon S3 as well as Azure Blob Storage as a single unit. 

At the time of designing the backup system, that was a nice feature to have, since we assume that you’ll usually have a backup to a local disk (for quick restore) as well as an offsite backup for longer-term storage. In practice, almost all backup configurations in RavenDB have a single destination. However, because we have support for multiple backup destinations, the backup process will first write the backup file to the local disk and then upload it.

The new Direct Upload mode only supports a single destination, and it streams the data to the destination directly, without touching the disk. As a result of this change, we are using far less I/O during backup procedures as well as reducing the total time it takes to run the backup.

This is especially useful if your backup destination is nearby and the network is good. This is frequently the case in the cloud, where you are backing up to S3 in the same region. In our tests, it reduced the backup time by 30% in some cases.

From a coding perspective, those are not huge changes, but together they mean that backups in RavenDB are now cheaper, faster, and far smaller. That translates to a better operating environment for your system. It also means that the costs of storing backups are going to go down by a significant amount.

You can read all the technical details about the few features in the feature announcements:

time to read 4 min | 723 words

Deep inside of the Corax indexing engine inside of RavenDB there is the notion of a posting list. A posting list is just an ordered set of entry ids that contains a particular term. During the indexing process, we need to add and remove items from that posting list. This ends up being something like this:

For fun, go and ask ChatGPT to write you the code for this task.

You can assume that there are no duplicates between the removals and additions, and that adding an existing item is a no-op (so just one value would be in the end result). Here is a quick solution for this task (not actually tested that much, mind, but sufficient to understand what I’m trying to do):

If you look at this code in terms of performance, you’ll realize that this is quite expensive. In terms of complexity, this is actually pretty good, we iterate over the arrays just once, and the number of comparisons is also bounded to the lengths of the list.

However, there is a big issue here, the number of branches that you have to deal with. Basically, every if and every for loop is going to add a tiny bit of latency to the system. This is because these are unpredictable branches, which are pretty nasty to deal with.

It turns out that the values that we put in the posting list are actually always a multiple of 4, so the bottom 2 bits are always cleared. That means that we actually have a different way to deal with it. Here is the new logic:

This code was written with an eye to being able to explain the algorithm, mind, not performance.

The idea goes like this. We flag the removals with a bit, then concatenate all the arrays together, sort them, and then do a single scan over the whole thing, removing duplicates and removals.

In the real code, we are using raw pointers, not a List, so there are no access checks, etc.

From an algorithmic perspective, this code makes absolutely no sense at all. We concatenate all the values together, then sort them (O(NlogN) operation) then scan it again?!

How can that be faster than a single scan across all three arrays? The answer is simple, we have a really efficient sort primitive (vxsort) that is able to sort things really fast (GB/sec). There is a really good series of posts that explain how that is achieved.

Since we consider sorting to be cheap, the rest of the work is just a single scan on the list, and there are no branches at all there. The code plays with the offset that we write into, figuring out whether we need to overwrite the current value (duplicate) or go back (removal), but in general it means that it can execute very quickly.

This approach also has another really important aspect. Take a look at the actual code that we have in production. This is from about an hour worth of profiling a busy indexing session:


And the more common code path:


In both of them, you’ll notice something really important. There isn’t a call to sorting at all in here. In fact, when I search for the relevant function, I find:


That is 25 ms out of over an hour.

How can this be? As efficient as the sorting can be, we are supposed to be calling it a lot.

Well, consider one scenario, what happens if:

  • There are no removals
  • All additions happen after the last existing item in the list

In this case, I don’t need to do anything beyond concatenate the lists. I can skip the entire process entirely, just copy the existing and additions to the output and call it a day.

Even when I do have a lot of removals and complicated merge processes, the code structure means that the CPU can get through this code very quickly. This isn’t super friendly for humans to read, but for the CPU, this is chump change.

time to read 3 min | 479 words

At some point in any performance optimization sprint, you are going to run into a super annoying problem: The dictionary.

The reasoning is quite simple. One of the most powerful optimization techniques is to use a cache, which is usually implemented as a dictionary. Today’s tale is about a dictionary, but surprisingly enough, not about a cache.

Let’s set up the background, I’m looking at optimizing a big indexing batch deep inside RavenDB, and here is my current focus:


You can see that the RecordTermsForEntries take 4% of the overall indexing time. That is… a lot, as you can imagine.

What is more interesting here is why. The simplified version of the code looks like this:

Basically, we are registering, for each entry, all the terms that belong to it. This is complicated by the fact that we are doing the process in stages:

  1. Create the entries
  2. Process the terms for the entries
  3. Write the terms to persistent storage (giving them the recorded term id)
  4. Update the entries to record the term ids that they belong to

The part of the code that we are looking at now is the last one, where we already wrote the terms to persistent storage and we need to update the entries. This is needed so when we read them, we’ll be able to find the relevant terms.

At any rate, you can see that this method cost is absolutely dominated by the dictionary call. In fact, we are actually using an optimized method here to avoid doing a TryGetValue() and then Add() in case the value is not already in the dictionary.

If we actually look at the metrics, this is actually kind of awesome. We are calling the dictionary almost 400 million times and it is able to do the work in under 200 nanoseconds per call.

That is pretty awesome, but that still means that we have over 2% of our total indexing time spent doing lookups. Can we do better?

In this case, absolutely. Here is how this works, instead of doing a dictionary lookup, we are going to store a list. And the entry will record the index of the item in the list. Here is what this looks like:

There isn’t much to this process, I admit. I was lucky that in this case, we were able to reorder things in such a way that skipping the dictionary lookup is a viable method.

In other cases, we would need to record the index at the creation of the entry (effectively reserving the position) and then use that later.

And the result is…


That is pretty good, even if I say so myself. The cost went down from 3.6 microseconds per call to 1.3 microseconds. That is almost 3 folds improvement.

time to read 1 min | 83 words

I’m going to QCon San Francisco and will be teaching a full day workshop where we’ll start from a C compiler and  an empty file and end up with a functional storage engine, indexing and more.

Included in the minimum requirements are implementing transactions, MVCC, persistent data structures, and indexes.

The workshop is going to be loosely based on the book, but I’m going to condense things so we can cover this topic in a single day.

Looking forward to seeing you there.

time to read 3 min | 417 words

A customer called us, quite upset, because their RavenDB cluster was failing every few minutes. That was weird, because they were running on our cloud offering, so we had full access to the metrics, and we saw absolutely no problem on our end.

During the call, it turned out that every now and then, but almost always immediately after a new deployment, RavenDB would fail some requests. On a fairly consistent basis, we could see two failures and a retry that was finally successful.

Okay, so at least there is no user visible impact, but this was still super strange to see. On the backend, we couldn’t see any reason why we would get those sort of errors.

Looking at the failure stack, we narrowed things down to an async operation that was invoked via DataDog. Our suspicions were focused on this being an error in the async machinery customization that DataDog uses for adding non-invasive monitoring.

We created a custom build for the user that they could test and waited to get the results from their environment. Trying to reproduce this locally using DataDog integration didn’t raise any flags.

The good thing was that we did find a smoking gun, a violation of the natural order and invariant breaking behavior.

The not so good news was that it was in our own code. At least that meant that we could fix this.

Let’s see if I can explain what is going on. The customer was using a custom configuration: FastestNode. This is used to find the nearest / least loaded node in the cluster and operate from it.

How does RavenDB know which is the fastest node? That is kind of hard to answer, after all. It checks.

Every now and then, RavenDB replicates a read request to all nodes in the cluster. Something like this:

The idea is that we send the request to all the nodes, and wait for the first one to arrive. Since this is the same request, all servers will do the same amount of work, and we’ll find the fastest node from our perspective.

Did you notice the cancellation token in there? When we return from this function, we cancel the existing requests. Here is what this looks like from the monitoring perspective:


This looks exactly like every few minutes, we have a couple of failures (and failover) in the system and was quite confusing until we figured out exactly what was going on.


  1. RavenDB and Two Factor Authentication - one day from now
  2. Coding after work: RavenDb, passion, and books with Dejan Milicic - about one day from now

There are posts all the way to Mar 07, 2024


  1. Recording (13):
    05 Mar 2024 - Technology & Friends - Oren Eini on the Corax Search Engine
  2. Meta Blog (2):
    23 Jan 2024 - I'm a JS Developer now
  3. Production postmortem (51):
    12 Dec 2023 - The Spawn of Denial of Service
  4. Challenge (74):
    13 Oct 2023 - Fastest node selection metastable error state–answer
  5. Filtering negative numbers, fast (4):
    15 Sep 2023 - Beating memcpy()
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