Oren Eini

CEO of RavenDB

a NoSQL Open Source Document Database

Get in touch with me:

oren@ravendb.net +972 52-548-6969

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time to read 4 min | 792 words

RavenDB can run on the Raspberry Pi, it is actually an important use case for us when our users are deploying RavenDB as part of Internet of Things systems. We wanted to showcase RavenDB’s performance and decided that instead of scaling up and showing you how well RavenDB does ridiculous loads, we’ll go the other way around. We’ll go small, and let you directly experience how efficient RavenDB is.

You can look at the demo unit directly on this page.

We decided to dial it down yet further, and run RavenDB on the Raspberry Pi Zero.

This tiny computer is about the size of a cigarette lighter and is small enough to comfortably fit on your keychain. Most Raspberry Pis are impressive machines given their cost, more than powerful enough to power real applications.

Here is what this actually looks like, with me as a reference for size 🙂.

However, just installing RavenDB on the Zero isn't much of a challenge or particularly interesting, to be honest. We wanted to do something that would be both fun and useful. One of the features we want users to explore is the ability to run RavenDB in appliance mode. The question is, what sort of an appliance will we build?

A key part of our thinking was that we wanted to show something that works with realistic data sizes. We wanted to have an actual use case for this, beyond just showing a toy. One of the things that I always find maddening about being disconnected is that I feel like half my brain has been cut away.

We set out to fix that, the project is to create a knowledge system inside the Pi Zero that would be truly Plug & Play. That turned out to be quite a challenge, but I think we met it in a very nice manner.

We went to archive.org and got some of the Stack Exchange data sets. In particular, we got the datasets that are most interesting for DevOps scenarios. In particular, we have raspberrypi.stackexchange.com, unix.stackexchange.com, serverfault.com, and superuser.com.

I find it deliciously recursive that we can use the Raspberry Pi Zero to store the dataset about the Raspberry Pi itself. We loaded all those datasets into the Zero, for a total of about 7.5 GB, and over 4.2 million documents were stored there.

Note that this is using RavenDB’s document compression, which reduced the total size by over 50% over the original dataset size.

Next was the time to actually make this accessible. Just working with RavenDB directly to query the data is cool, for sure, but we wanted to be useful.

So we built a portal to access the data. Here is what it looks like when you enter it for the first time:

We offer full search capabilities and complete offline access to all those data sets. Perfect when you are stuck in the middle of nowhere and urgently need to remember that awk syntax or how to configure networking on a stubborn device.

Another aspect that we have to consider is how this can work? The Raspberry Pi Zero is a tiny device, and actually working with it can be annoying. It needs Micro-USB power but has no ethernet or standard USB ports. For display, it uses a mini HDMI port. That means that you can safely assume that you’re likely to have a power cable for it, but not much else.

We want to provide a good solution, so what do we do? The Raspberry Pi Zero we use does have a wifi chip, so we took things further and set it up as an access point with a captive portal.

You can read exactly how we configured that in this post.

In other words, the expected deployment model is to plug this into power, wait 30 seconds for the machine to boot, and then connect to the “Hugin” wireless network. You will then land directly into the application, able to deep dive into the questions of your choice.

We have been giving away those appliances at the DevWeek conference, and we got a really good reaction from users. Beyond the coolness factor, the fact that we can run a high-performance system on top of a… challenging hardware platform (512MB RAM, 1Ghz RAM, SD Card for disk) and still provide sub-100ms response times is quite amazing.

You can view the project page here, the entire thing is Open Source, and you can explore how we are able to do that on GitHub.

time to read 6 min | 1075 words

I’m really happy to announce that RavenDB Cloud is now offering NVMe based instances on the Performance tier. In short, that means that you can deploy RavenDB Cloud clusters to handle some truly high workloads.

You can learn more about what is actually going on in our documentation. For performance numbers and costs, feel free to skip to the bottom of this post.

I’m assuming that you may not be familiar with everything that a database needs to run fast, and this feature deserves a full explanation of what is on offer. So here are the full details of what you can now do.

RavenDB is a transactional database that often processes far more data than the memory available on the machine. Consequently, it needs to read from and write to  the disk. In fact, as a database, you can say that it is its primary role. This means that one of the most important factors for database performance is the speed of your disk. I have written about the topic before in more depth, if you are interested in exploring the topic.

When running on-premises, it’s easy to get the best disks you can. We recommend at least good SSDs and prefer NVMe drives for best results. When running on the cloud, the situation is quite different. Machines in the cloud are assumed to be transient, they come and go. Disks, on the other hand, are required to be persistent. So a typical disk on the cloud is actually a remote storage device (typically replicated). That means that disk I/O on the cloud is… slow. To the point where you could get better performance from off-the-shelf hardware from 20 years ago.

There are higher tiers of high-performance disks available in the cloud, of course. If you need them, you are paying quite a lot for that additional performance. There is another option, however. You can use NVMe disks on the cloud as well. Well, you could, but do you want to?

The reason you’d want to use an NVMe disk in the cloud is performance, of course. But the problem with achieving this performance on the cloud is that you lose the safety of “this disk is persistent beyond the machine”. In other words, this is literally a disk that is attached to the physical server hosting your VM. If something goes wrong with that machine, you lose the disk. Traditionally, that means that you can only use that for transient data, not as the backend store for a database.

However, RavenDB has some interesting options to deal with this. RavenDB Cloud runs RavenDB clusters with 3 copies of the data by default, operating in a full multi-master configuration. Given that we already have multiple copies of the data, what would happen if we lost a machine?

The underlying watchdog would realize that something happened and initiate recovery, which will effectively spawn the instance on another node. That works, but what about the data? All of that data is now lost. The design of RavenDB treats that as an acceptable scenario, the cluster would detect such an issue, move the affected node to rehabilitation mode, and start pumping all the data from the other nodes in the cluster to it.

In short, now we’ve shifted from a node failure being catastrophic to having a small bump in the data traffic bill at the end of the month. Thanks to its multi-master setup, RavenDB can recover even if two nodes go down at the same time, as we’ll recover from the third one. RavenDB Cloud runs the nodes in the cluster in separate availability zones specifically to handle such failure scenarios.

We have run into this scenario multiple times, both as part of our testing and as actual production events. I am happy to say that everything works as expected, the failed node comes up empty, is filled by the rest of the cluster, and then seamlessly resumes its work. The users were not even aware that something happened.

Of course, there is always the possibility that the entire region could go down, or that three separate instances in three separate availability zones would fail at the same time. What happens then? That is expected to be a rare scenario, but we are all about covering our edge cases.

In such a scenario, you would need to recover from backup. Clusters using NVMe disks are configured to run using Snapshot backups, which consume slightly more disk space than normal but can be restored more quickly.

RavenDB Cloud also blocks the user's ability to scale up or down such clusters from the portal and requires a support ticket to perform them. This is because special care is needed when performing such operations on NVMe machines. Even with those limitations, we are able to perform such actions with zero downtime for the users.

And after all this story, let’s talk numbers. Take a look at the following table illustrating the costs vs. performance on AWS (us-east-1):

Type# of coresMemoryDiskCost ($ / hour)
P40 (Premium disk)1664 GB2 TB, 10,000 IOPS, 360 MB/s8.790
PN30 (NVMe)864 GB2 TB, 110,000 IOPS, 440 MB/s6.395
PN40 (NVMe)16128 GB4 TB, 220,000 IOPS, 880 MB/s12.782

The situation is even more blatant when looking at the numbers on Azure (eastus):

Type# of coresMemoryDiskCost ($ / hour)
P40 (Premium disk)1664 GB2 TB, 7,500 IOPS, 250 MB/s7.089
PN30 (NVMe)864 GB2 TB, 400,000 IOPS, 2 GB/s6.485
PN40 (NVMe)16128 GB4 TB, 800,000 IOPS, 4 GB/s12.956

In other words, you can upgrade to the NVMe cluster and actually reduce the spend if you are stalled on I/O. We expect most workloads to see both higher performance and lower cost from a move from P40 with premium disk to PN30 (same amount of memory, fewer cores). For most workloads, we have found that IO rate matters even more than core count or CPU horsepower.

I’m really excited about this new feature, not only because it can give you a big performance boost but also because it leverages the same behavior that RavenDB already exhibits for handling issues in the cluster and recovering from unexpected failures.

In short, you now have some new capabilities at your fingertips, being able to use RavenDB Cloud for even more demanding workloads. Give it a try, I hear it goes vrooom 🙂.

time to read 1 min | 85 words

Join Oren Eini, CEO of RavenDB, as he explores the design and implementation of RavenDB’s indexing engine Corax, its impact on indexing and query performance, and how the engine addresses common challenges such as slow data retrieval, high hosting expenses, and sluggish development processes. You’ll also gain valuable insights into the architecture's performance costs and its ability to unlock efficiency in data handling.

You can watch it now.


time to read 2 min | 267 words

This happened a few minutes ago, I got a call from an unknown number. That was my wife’s work number, and she called to ask me an urgent question, it seems:


“Can you tell me how to compress a PDF file?” she asked.

For the next part, it might be better if I paint you the whole picture. Imagine bullet time, where everything slows down, and I start to analyze the question and my possible answer. The following thoughts run through my mind during that time.

  • PDF files are already compressed by default.
  • Pretty sure that the file format is already using compression.
  • You could strip unneeded elements from the file, removing fonts is one example, I think.
  • If there are images, can probably downscale or re-sample them to reduce their size.
  • What about just running this through Zip?
  • Where did this question come from?

That took about two seconds in real time. The decision tree for any possible answer here grew exponentially. I had to make a call.

“No, that isn’t easily possible,” I answered.

I got some more details as well.

“This is for uploading a document to the XYZ system, it only accepts up to 4MB files, but this PDF is 5.5MB. I guess I can just scan this document as two separate pages instead of one, right?”

A workaround found, and a detailed dive into lossless vs. lossy compression compared to the file format choice avoided, I agreed that this was probably the best option and finished my coffee, pondering the ethical dilemma of answering the actual question or the intended question.

time to read 7 min | 1340 words

I’m currently playing with a Secret Project (code-named Hugin right now) and for that purpose, I literally ordered all the available Raspberry Pi in Israel. That last statement sounds like a joke, but we checked six to eight places, and our order quantity exceeds the inventory in the country. They are flying the units to us as you read this.

I would love to hear what you think I’m doing, by the way. Please share  your thoughts on the matter in the comments.

For Hugin, I’m playing with Pi Zero 2 W, which is about the size of a lighter. They are small, and somewhat underpowered, but really cool. They also run RavenDB surprisingly well, but I’ll touch on that in a later post.

The drawback of the Zero is that basically it has two ports: a micro USB and a mini-HDMI. There is also a micro USB for power, but for doing stuff with it, just those two ports. If you are like me, you have more micro USB power cables than you know what to do with. However, micro USB on-the-go connectors or mini-HDMI are far rarer these days.

I want this to be useful and easy, so I started thinking about how I could make it simpler to work with. Then I realized that the Zero model I’m using (2 W) has built-in wifi, and that meant that I could start getting smart. The idea is that we can turn the Zero into an access point, so all you’ll need is to plug it into power (using a micro USB cable you likely already have), wait half a minute, and connect to the machine.

Once I had the idea, I delved deep into figuring out how to make it work. I managed, and the entire process is pretty simple from a user perspective, but it was anything but to make it work.

For the rest of this post, I will be working with the Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W, using Raspberry Pi OS Lite (Legacy, 32 bits) (Debian Bullseye). I tested this on a range of Pis (I apparently got lots, from Raspberry Pi 3 B to the Raspberry Pi 400), and it worked on everything I tried.

I actually tried quite hard to get it working on the Raspberry Pi OS (the non-legacy, which is Debian Bookworm). However, I couldn’t get it to behave the way I wanted it to. Setting up a wifi hotspot on Bookworm is easy, but getting it to bind DNS and DHCP to a particular device was beyond my capabilities.

From my reading, it doesn’t look like I’m the only one running into issues here.

The basic idea is that on connecting to a WiFi network, most devices will check connectivity and display the captive portal page if needed. In this case, we simply provide the captive portal page to our application. Hence, the only thing you need to do is to connect to the hotspot, and everything else is handled for you.

This blog post was really helpful figuring things out.

How this works, however, is a whole other matter. I’m assuming that you are running on a clean slate, booting for the first time on the clean image of Raspberry Pi Lite (Bullseye). The first thing to do is to set up the wifi, DNS, and DHCP, like so:

sudo raspi-config nonint do_wifi_country IL
sudo rfkill unblock wifi
sudo apt-get install -y nginx dnsmasq dhcpcd

We first set up the country for wifi, unblock it, and install nginx,dnsmasq and dhcpcd. Our next step it update /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf to create the actual hotspot:

ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev

We define the MyHotSpot network as an open (key_mgmt=NONE) access point (mode=2). We need to plug this into the DHCP configuration in /etc/dhcpcd.conf:

option rapid_commit
option domain_name_servers, domain_name, domain_search, host_name
option classless_static_routes
option interface_mtu
require dhcp_server_identifier
slaac private

env wpa_supplicant_conf=/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
interface wlan0
static ip_address=

The last part is the most important bit. We pull the wpa_supplicant configuration that we previously defined, apply it to the WiFi device (wlan0), and register a static IP for that interface. Basically, the WiFi interface will use that IP address as the gateway for clients connecting to it. Those clients need to get their own IP addresses, and that is the role of dnsmasq (no idea why it isn’t a dhcpcd that does it, it’s literally in the name). Here is the relevant configuration file /etc/dnsmasq.conf:


# Resolve everything to the portal's IP address.

# Android Internet Conectivity Test Domains

There is a lot going on here. We define the DHCP range from which clients will get their IPs and set the router for this connection. We also define option 114 (and 160, which is a legacy one) to instruct the client that it needs to first visit that URL before it connecting to the wider internet.

Finally, we set up DNS in such a way that all DNS entries go to the server, except for a certain set of known domains used by some Android phones to check for an internet connection. We’ll touch on that in a bit.

In short, all of this configuration basically tells the Zero to create a WiFi hotspot with IP, assign connected devices IP addresses in the range .., set  the DNS server for those devices to, and resolve any DNS query  to IP Also, if they care to, there is a specific URL users need to visit to get things started. In short, we are trying to guide the user to take us to the right place.

One problem we have, however, is that we didn’t set up anything to respond to HTTP requests. That is why we installed nginx earlier. We configure it using /etc/nginx/sites-available/default:

server {
    listen 80 default_server;
    listen [::]:80 default_server;
    server_name _;
    location / {
        return 302 http://awesome.appliance;
server {
  listen *:80;
  server_name awesome.appliance;

  root /var/appliance/web;
  autoindex on;

The idea here is simple. Everything before basically directs the client to the server, all domains go to it, etc. So when a connection comes, we tell nginx that it should return a 302 response (redirect) to the portal endpoint we have.

If the client is requesting the http://awesome.applianceaddress, however, we serve an actual website.

All of this together ends up with an open access point that, upon connection, will direct you to a web page. This is a walled garden, of course, since we assume that the Zero is connected only to the power.

Now that this is solved, you need to figure out what function you want the appliance to actually have.