Ayende @ Rahien

Oren Eini aka Ayende Rahien CEO of Hibernating Rhinos LTD, which develops RavenDB, a NoSQL Open Source Document Database.

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+972 52-548-6969

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time to read 2 min | 372 words

Note: This post was written by Federico.

Recently at CoreFX there has been a proposal to deal with the typical case of everyone writing their own hash combining logic. I really like the framework to push that kind of functionality because hashing is one of those things that unless you really know what you are doing, it can backfire pretty bad (and even if you know, you can step over the cliff too).  But this post is not about the issue itself, but it showcases a few little details that happen at JIT land (and that we usually abuse, of course J). This is the issue: https://github.com/dotnet/corefx/issues/8034#issuecomment-260733285

Let me illustrate with some examples.
ValueTuple is a new type that is being introduced that is necessary for some of the new tuples functionality in C# 7. Because hashing is important, of course they implemented the ability to combine hashes. Now, let’s suppose that we take the actual code hashing code that is being used for ValueTuple and use constants to call it. 

Now under an optimizing compiler chances are that there shouldn't be any difference, but in reality there is.

This is the actual machine code for ValueTuple:

So now what can be seen here? First we are creating an struct in the stack, then we are calling the actual hash code.

Now compare it with the use of HashHelper.Combine which for all purposes it could be the actual implementation of Hash.Combine

I know!!! How cool is that???
But let’s not stop there... let’s use actual parameters:

We use random values here to force the JIT to treat them as parameters and not being able to eliminate the code and convert it yet again into a constant.

The good thing, this is extremely stable. But let’s compare it with the alternative:

The question that you may be asking yourselves is: Does that scale?. So, let’s go overboard...

And the result is pretty illustrative:

The takeaway of the analysis is simple: even if the holding type is a struct, it doesn't mean it is free :)

time to read 3 min | 429 words

Note, this post was written by Federico.

In my last post we talked about the cost of throwing and catching exceptions at the caller site. Some are straightforward and easily seen like the code complexity, but others are a bit deeper, like for instance how the code ends up like that (we will talk about that, but not just yet). Today we will focus on what to do when we control the call-site and are in a performance sensitive hot-spot.

There are 2 important assumptions here:

  • You own the code
  • You are in a hot-spot

If either one of these two is not true, then this is of zero importance or you are screwed. Smile

So let's modify our code a bit (check in yesterday's post if you don’t remember the details). In order to achieve the same result we will resort to a very well-known pattern that I like to call TryXXX. Many instance of such optimizations are visible in the .Net Framework like the famous int.TryParse method. Apparently someone during the course of using v1.0 (or v1.1) of the Framework figured out that the cost of exception handling for certain scenarios was a bit too much. We probably won’t know who was, but we can all be glad they have fixed it; even though we have to live with an exception based implementation (borrowed from Java style?) as obsolete code since then.

So let's see how the code would look. 


Pretty straightforward I might say. Now the interesting thing is what happens at the assembler level:


Even under shallow review, we can conclude that this code is definitely faster than the alternative. Now what did we win against the try-catch version? Essentially, we don't have a prolog and an epilog in case of the choosing the exceptional path, that’s faster than having to execute such code. The exception case also does not have to deal with non-local effects caused by unwinding the stack; but we are forced to have a hierarchy of TryXXX methods if that goes deep (the alternative of using exceptions for readability is not great either).

Now in this code we have the first glimpse of evidence of a few JIT design choices (and some current restrictions too) that are important performance wise and we will discuss them in future posts.

time to read 4 min | 624 words

Note, this post was written by Federico.

One guideline which is commonly known is: "Do not use exceptions for flow control." You can read more about it in many places, but this is good compendium of the most common arguments. If you are not acquainted with the reasons, give them a read first; I’ll wait.

Many of the reasons focus on the readability of the code, but remember, my work (usually) revolves around writing pretty disgusting albeit efficient code. So even though I care about readability it is mostly achieved through very lengthy comments on the code on why you shouldn't touch something if you cannot prove something will be faster.

Digression aside the question is still open. What is the impact of using exceptions for control flow (or having to deal with someone else throwing exceptions) in your performance sensitive code? Let's examine that in detail.

For that we will use a very simple code to understand what can happen. 


This is a code that is simple enough so that the assembler won’t get too convoluted, but at the same time sport at least some logic we can use as markers.

Let's first inspect the method CanThrow, in there what we can see is how the throwing of exceptions happen:


As you can see there is a lot of things to be done just to throw the exception. There in the last call we will use jump to the proper place in the stack and continue in the catch statement that we hit.


So here is the code of our simple method. At the assembler level, our try statement has a very important implication. Each try-catch forces the method to deal with a few control flow issues. First it has to store the exception handler in case anything inside would throw, then it has to do the actual work. If there is no exception (the happy path) we move forward and end. But what happen if we have an exception? We first need to remove the handler (we don't want to recheck this handler if we end up throwing inside the catch, right?) Then execute the catch and be done.

But now let’s contrast that to the generated code if no try-catch statement happens. The avid reader will realize that the happy path will never be executed because we are throwing, but don’t worry, the code is the same if there is no inlining happening.


We will talk about why the code ends up like this in a follow up post, but suffice to say that all this trouble cannot beat a check for a Boolean if you needed to fail (and could do something about it). 

It is also important to remember that this kind of work is only relevant if you are in the hot path. If you are not calling a function at least a few tens of thousands a second, don’t even bother, your performance costs are elsewhere. This is micro optimization land.

time to read 3 min | 401 words

Note, this post was written by Federico.

imageThe .Net Just-In-Time compiler (or JIT for short) is one of those marvels you don't even realize is there, unless you have to smooth talk it to do your bidding. At the Voron level, most routines are so tight that the assembler emitted becomes important. It is not uncommon to have to reason about how the instructions are going to be decoded by the CPU, if the microarchitecture is able to execute two instructions independently or not or we are memory-bound (having too many cache misses).

Those with a C/C++ background know the optimizing compiler is actually quite good at its job; and even so, tricks are required to squeeze the last performance bits. The JIT is no different, with the addition that while the C++ compiler has all the time in the world (sort-of); the restrictions imposed by compiling while your code is executing are far more severe. However, even on a budget, the CoreCLR does a pretty amazing job at optimizing. Until, of course, you expect the performance feats of the offline C++ compiler from it.

So the question you may probably have is: "Why bother? Why don't you just go and write the database in C++?”. I won't go in detail on that, since we covered that already . What I can tell you is, that when you dig into the JIT world, it is pretty easy to achieve performance on par with C++ if the JIT by design doesn't get in your way with unsupported features. Good thing is the CoreCLR team is quite open to tackle those  issues if presented with a detailed analysis on the cost-effectiveness of your optimization.

In this series we will talk about the tricks we had to teach our code to squeeze those last bits of micro-optimizations. From specific optimizations requested to the development team and workarounds until they are available, to tricks we use to ensure the assembler code generated is of the highest quality possible.

One word of caution: The JIT is ever improving so it is important to understand that the optimizations opportunities presented here may not apply tomorrow or just be done automatically in future versions of CoreCLR.


No future posts left, oh my!


  1. Webinar recording (9):
    27 Aug 2020 - The App that Guarantees You're Going Out This Saturday Night
  2. Podcast (3):
    17 Aug 2020 - #SoLeadSaturday with Oren Eini
  3. RavenDB Webinar (3):
    01 Jun 2020 - Polymorphism at Scale
  4. Talk (5):
    23 Apr 2020 - Advanced indexing with RavenDB
  5. Challenge (57):
    21 Apr 2020 - Generate matching shard id–answer
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