The Fallacy of Shared Entity Model
What works for the database doesn't work for an entity, and what works for an entity is a really bad idea if you are trying to call a web service, a web service data is really not the right thing when you want a report. Your customer has a Birthday field, which I couldn't care less. I really want to track the last time a user signed in, but you don't have that information avialable to give me. You really don't want to give the employee salary data to the employee listing grid, etc.
I see a lot of dicussion about trying to have a single Entity (in the pure term: something with business meaning) that map to every representation and any scenario. The needs, constraints and requirements for each fo those are very different. Trying to make them all fit in one representation makes this a very bad representation.
Let us consider a simple entity, the Employee. It contains data such as name, date of birth, hire date, salary, etc. On the database side, it may be represented as a temporal table for each property, linked together by the employee id. In the business logic, I have an EmployeeSnapshot, which is not temporal, but is valid for a certain date only. On the UI, I have only a limited view of the employee (with salary information, for instnace), and a web service exposes additional employee information (hierarchies), to be consumed by the CRM (for permissions).
For this simple entity, I already have four different representation. I might be able to satisfy them all within a single class, but what does it gives me? A heavy weight hybrid that I can't really change without affecting all parts of the system.
In my current project, I have:
- Policy - Active Record Entity - Business logic
- AjaxianPolicy - Simple view of the fields that I want to show on the screen - Strictly DTO
When I get to the part that I need web services for, I will also add PolicyMessage class.
On the surface, this seems to break the DRY principal. I now exposed the fact that Policy has a Id property in several places. I don't think that this apply here, it may looks like repetition and more work, but I end up with simpler model to work with, and I can optimize each individual case independently. And by optimize I do not mean perfromance, I mean ease of use, compatability, etc.