Oren Eini

CEO of RavenDB

a NoSQL Open Source Document Database

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time to read 3 min | 600 words

The ShoppingCartController is heavily affected by the changes we made to the ShoppingCart. Let us look at those changes, starting from Index():

image image

On the left, we have the original version. You can see that it executes two different queries to process this order, the Raven version, however, is executing only a single query, in the FindShoppingCart method:


This just implements the logic of loading the cart from Raven or creating a new cart (with the specified shopping cart id), note that we don’t save the new cart to the database here, merely associate the new cart with the session. There is no need to save, since it contains no meaningful data at this point. When we will call SaveChanges(), the new cart will be send to Raven for storage.

Let us look at the AddToCart action now:

image  image

On the left, you can see the old version, and on the right, you see the Raven version. They are pretty similar, except that in the Raven case, the shopping cart’s AddToCart is concerned solely with adding a new item to the cart or incrementing the quantity of an existing item. There is absolutely no data access in the Raven’s version of ShoppingCart.AddToCart.

One major difference is that the Raven approach is calling the session.SaveChanges() in the action code. The reason for that is simple, it is the proper place for this, as the calling code, it is responsible for the environment, including saving when needed.

image image

Raven’s code is pretty easy to follow here, I think. There is just one thing that you should note, the last line is pretty strange id.Split ? Why do we do that?

The reason for that is that Raven uses id that looks like this: “albums/616” and the DeleteId is used by the calling javascript code to find an element by its id. An element can’t contain a ‘/’ in it, so we strip it away and only send the number part of the id. This is safe to do since we only deal with albums here.

image image

Again, this is about as simple as you can make it, so I’ll note only that Raven’s approach can benefit from the unit of work cache, and the old code approach can’t.

In my next post, we will deal with the order process.

time to read 6 min | 1121 words


The ShoppingCart class in the MVC Music Store is my current punching bug, I really don’t like it.

You can see how it looks on the image on the right. The problem is that this code mixes two different responsibilities:

  • Operations about a shopping cart:
    • GetCart
    • GetCartId
    • GetCartItems
    • GetCount
  • Operations of a shopping cart:
    • AddToCart
    • CreateOrder
    • EmptyCart
    • MigrateCart
    • RemoveFromCart

You might have noticed that all the operations about a shopping cart are get operations. All the operations of the cart are things that belong to the cart, it is the cart’s business logic and reason for being. The Get operations don’t belong to the cart, they belong in some other object that manages instances of carts.

In most applications, we would call this object a Repository. I am not sure that we really need one here. Looking at the Get methods, most of them are here because of the decision to only store cart line items, which requires us to issue explicit queries to get the data.

With Raven, we would follow a different model, which means that the only thing we are likely to need is GetCart() and maybe GetCartId().

Here is how a typical cart document will look like as a document:


And as an entity in our application:


The GetTotal method was replaced with a Total property.  Until the GetTotal method, with issued a query to the database, this property operates solely in memory. This is another major difference with Raven vs. OR/M solution is that Raven doesn’t do lazy loading. This is by design, since document dbs data models rarely need to traverse data outside their own document. Traversing the document from Raven cannot force lazy loading or result in the dreaded SELECT N+1 issues.

And now let us deal with the operations about a cart. The most important ones are GetCartId and GetCart. I think that those methods has no place there. I created a new class, ShoppingCartFinder, which looks like this:


Note that we don’t expose GetCartId anymore, this is an internal detail that shouldn’t be seen by clients of this class. We do need to support setting the cart id, because we also support cart migrations (when an anonymous users logs in). We don’t need any of the other methods, so I removed them.

Let us go over the operations of the cart.

image image

The method on the left is the original code, and on the right you can see Raven’s code. The Raven code operates completely in memory, and in totally persistence ignorance. The old code is deals explicitly with persistence. This isn’t that much of a problem, except that this is the wrong level to deal with persistence issues.

image image


Going over RemoveFromCart, you can see that it shrunk significantly in size, and again, it is an in memory operation only. EmptyCart isn’t implemented in the Raven version, since it is just a Lines.Clear()

It is interesting to note that EmptyCart in the old implementation would result in N queries, where N is the number of items in the cart, while with Raven, this will result in 1 query.


I don’t think that there is much to say here, except that the old code would execute N*2 queries, while Raven’s code will still execute 1 query :-)

MigrateCart is interesting, because the implementation is drastically different:

image image

With the old code, we update all the items in the cart, one at a time. With Raven, we do something drastically different. The Shopping Cart Id is the document key, so given the shopping cart id (which is the user name or stored in the session), we can load the shopping cart in using a Load (by primary key, to equate to the relational mindset). Migrating a cart is a simple enough operation, all you have to do is change the key. Since Raven doesn’t allow renames, we do it with a Delete/Store, which are executed inside a single transaction.

The calling code for MigrateCart looks like this:


Note that SaveChanges is atomic and transactional, so this has the same effect as issuing a rename.

And that is it for the shopping cart, in my next post, I’ll discuss the ShoppingCartController which uses this class.


No future posts left, oh my!


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