Ayende @ Rahien

My name is Oren Eini
Founder of Hibernating Rhinos LTD and RavenDB.
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A surprise TaskCancelledException

All of a sudden, my code started getting a lot of TaskCancelledException. It took me a while to figure out what was going on. We can imagine that the code looked like this:

var unwrap = Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
    if (DateTime.Now.Month % 2 != 0)
        return null;

    return Task.Factory.StartNew(() => Console.WriteLine("Test"));


The key here is that when Unwrap is getting a null task, it will throw a TaskCancelledException, which was utterly confusing to me. It make sense, because if the task is null there isn’t anything that the Unwrap method can do about it. Although I do wish it would throw something like ArgumentNullException with a better error message.

The correct way to write this code is to have:

var unwrap = Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
    if (DateTime.Now.Month % 2 != 0)
        var taskCompletionSource = new TaskCompletionSource<object>();
        return taskCompletionSource.Task;

    return Task.Factory.StartNew(() => Console.WriteLine("Test"));


Although I do wish that there was an easier way to create a completed task.


Remco Blok

The Async CTP has a static TaskEx.FromResult method that does exactly what you do:

public static Task FromResult(TResult result) { TaskCompletionSource source = new TaskCompletionSource(result); source.TrySetResult(result); return source.Task; }

Expect this TaskEx class to be merged with the Task class for .Net 5.

Frank Quednau

3 lines of code that can be extracted into some static property hardly counts as a difficult way to create a completed task ;)

Omer Mor

Oren, have you gotten in Rx yet (as in fully grokked it)? You seem to use tasks a lot. I myself use Rx for most of my asynchronous needs. It is usually a better concept. And regarding this case, it has Observable.Empty or Observable.Return(null) helpers which could your case, had you been using Rx.

Ayende Rahien

Omer, I would love to see some real examples of TPL vs. RX code, because I haven't really been able to figure out that. And I think that with C# 5.0, TPL is a better alternative

Omer Mor

This is from SO: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2542764/tpl-v-s-reactive-framework In general, tasks abstract single (future) values/computations and observables abstract streams of (future) values/computations. You could treat the single value case as a special case of a single value stream, and only use Rx. However if your use case primarily deals with single values, TPL might be a better feat. Also, Rx allows for much better composition (using LINQ).

From my experience, Rx works best when replacing events.

For me - Rx was a mind enhancing experience, which changed the way I perceive many problems. I advise you to take a leap of faith here, and invest some time in this ingenious framework.

Ayende Rahien

Omer, Most of what we are doing are actually do computation of a single value. For example, take a look at the type of things we do here:

public Task<BatchResult[]> BatchAsync(ICommandData[] commandDatas) { var metadata = new RavenJObject(); AddTransactionInformation(metadata); var req = jsonRequestFactory.CreateHttpJsonRequest(this, url + "/bulk_docs", "POST", metadata, credentials, convention); var jArray = new RavenJArray(commandDatas.Select(x => x.ToJson())); var data = jArray.ToString(Formatting.None);

return Task.Factory.FromAsync(req.BeginWrite, req.EndWrite, data, null)
    .ContinueWith(writeTask => req.ReadResponseStringAsync())
    .ContinueWith(task =>
        string response;
            response = task.Result;
        catch (WebException e)
            var httpWebResponse = e.Response as HttpWebResponse;
            if (httpWebResponse == null ||
                httpWebResponse.StatusCode != HttpStatusCode.Conflict)
            throw ThrowConcurrencyException(e);
        return JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<BatchResult[]>(response, new JsonToJsonConverter());


can you should me how this would be written, Rx style?

Omer Mor

I'll give it a shot later. I guess the basic idea would be to treat it as a stream of command batches, and project it (select) into a stream of responses. Along the way we could push the handling into a dedicated thread, or use the thread/task pool. we might also easily "batch our batches" based on count or time if that could increase our performance. we might also throttle against overloading / DoS attacks for example.

I cross-posted your example in the Rx forums, for help getting an expert opinion on this (http://social.msdn.microsoft.com/Forums/en/rx/thread/3cd72a7e-fba8-4c81-9113-36ef78e2ac54).

Ayende Rahien

Omer, None of those things are actually needed or required.

BatchAsync is being called from SaveChangesAsync, and there is usually only ever to be one of them.

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