Ayende @ Rahien

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Career planning: What is your path?

I got a lot of really great answers about my “Where do old developers go?”, I’m feeling much better about this now Smile.

Now let turn this question around, instead of asking what is going on in the industry, let’s check what is going on with you. In particular, do you have a career plan at all?

An easy way to check that is asking: “What are you going to do in 3 years, in 7 years and in 20 years from now?”

Of course, best laid plans of mice and men will often go awry, plans for the futures are written in sand on a stormy beach and other stuff like this. Any future planning has to include the caveats that they are just plans, with reality and life getting in the way.

For lawyers*, the career path might be: Trainee, associate, senior associate, junior partner, partner, named partner. (* This is based solely on seeing some legal TV shows, not actual knowledge.) Most lawyers don’t actually become named partners, obviously, but that is what you are planning for.

As discussed in the previous post, a lot of developers move to management positions at some point in their careers, mostly because salaries and benefits tend to flat line after about ten years or so for most people in the development track. Others decide that going independent and becoming consultants or contractors is a better way to increase their income. Another path is to rise in the technical track in a company that recognize technical excellence, those are usually pure tech companies, it is rare to have such positions in non technical companies. Yet another track that seems to be available is the architect route, this one is available in non tech companies, especially big ones. You have the startup route, and the Get Rich Burning Your Twenties mode, but that is a high risk / high reward, and people who think about career planning tend to avoid such things unless carefully considered.

It is advisable to actually consider those options, try to decide what options you’ll want to have available for you in the next 5 – 15 years, and take steps accordingly. For example, if you want to go in the management track, you’ll want to work on thinks like people’s skill, be able to fluently converse with the business in their own terms and learn to play golf. You’ll want to try to have leadership positions from a relatively early start, so team lead is a stepping stone you’ll want to get to, for example. There is a lot of material on this path, so I’m not going to cover this in details.

If you want to go with the Technical Expert mode, that means that you probably need to grow a beard (there is nothing like stroking a beard in quite contemplation  to impress people). More seriously, you’ll want to get a deep level of knowledge in several fields, preferably ones that you can tie together into a cohesive package. For example, networks expert would be able to understand how TCP/IP work and be able to actually make use of that when optimize an HTML5 app. Crucial at this point is also the ability to actually transfer that knowledge to other people. If you are working within a company, that increase the overall value you have, but a lot of the time, technical experts would be consultants. Focusing on a relatively narrow field gives you a lot more value, but narrow your utility. Remember that updating your knowledge is very important. But the good news is that if you have a good grasp of basics, you can get to grips with new technology very easily.

The old timer mode fits people who work in big companies and who believe that they can carve a niche in that company based on their knowledge of the company’s business and how things actually work. This isn’t necessarily the one year experience, repeated 20 times, although in many cases, that seems to be what happens. Instead, it is a steady job with reasonable hours, and you know the business well enough and the environment in which you are working with, that you can just get things done, without a lot of fussing around. Change is hard, however, because those places tend to be very conservative. Then again, you can do new systems in whatever technology you want, at a certain point (you tend to become the owner of certain systems, you’ve been around longer than the people who are actually using the system). That does carry a risk, however. You can be fired for whatever reason (merger, downsizing, etc) and you’ll have hard time finding equivalent position.

The entrepreneur mode is for people who want to build something. That can be a tool or a platform, and they create a business selling that. A lot of the time, it involve a lot of technical work, but there is a huge amount of stuff that needs to be done that is non technical. Marketing and sales, insurance and taxes, hiring people, etc. The good thing about this is that you usually don’t have to have a very big investment in your product before you can start selling it. We are talking about roughly 3 – 6 months for most things, for 1 – 3 people. That isn’t a big leap, and in many cases, you can handle this by eating some savings, or moonlighting. Note that this can completely swallow your life, but you are your own boss, and there is a great deal of satisfaction around building a product around your vision. Be aware that you need to have contingency plans around for failure and success. If your product become successful, you need to make sure that you can handle the load (hire more people, train them, etc).

The startup mode is very different than the entrepreneur mode. In startup, you are focused on getting investments, and the scope is usually much bigger. There is less of a risk financially (you usually have investors for that), but there is a much higher risk of failure, and there is usually a culture that consider throwing yourself on hand grenade advisable. The idea is that you are going to burn yourself on both ends for two to four years, and in return, you’ll have enough money to maybe stop working altogether. I consider this foolish, given the success rates, but there are a lot of people who consider that to be the only way worth doing. The benefits usually include a nice environment, both physically and professionally, but  it comes with the expectation that you’ll stay there for so many hours, it is your second home.

There are other modes and career paths, but now I’ve to return to my job Smile.

Modeling exercise: The grocery store’s checkout model

I went to the super market yesterday, and I forgot to get out of work mode, so here is this posts. imageThe grocery store checkout model exercise deals with the following scenario. You have a customer that is scanning products in a self checkout lane, and you need to process the order.

In terms of external environment, you have:

  • ProductScanned ( ProductId: string ) event
  • Complete Order command
  • Products ( Product Id –> Name, Price ) dataset

So far, this is easy, however, you also need to take into account:

  • Sales (1+1, 2+1, 5% off for store brands, 10% off for store brands for loyalty card holders).
  • Purchase of items by weight (apples, bananas, etc).
  • Per customer discount for 5 items.
  • Rules such as alcohol can only be purchased after store clerk authorization.
  • Purchase limits (can only purchase up to 6 items of the same type, except for specific common products)

The nice thing about such an exercise is that it forces you to see how many things you have to juggle for such a seemingly simple scenario.

A result of this would be to see how you would handle relatively complex rules. Given the number of rules we already have, it should be obvious that there are going to be more, and that they are going to be changing on a fairly frequent basis. A better model would be to actually do this over time. So you start with just getting the first part, then you start streaming the other requirements, but what you actually see is the changes in the code over time. So each new requirement causes you to make modifications and accommodate the new behavior.

The end result might be a Git repository that allows you to see the full approach that was used and how it changed over time. Ideally, you should see a lot of churn in the beginning, but then you’ll have a lot less work to do as your architecture settles down.

Career planning: Where do old devs go to?

We are pretty much always looking for new people, what is holding us back from expanding even more rapidly is the time that it takes to get to grips with our codebases and what we do here. But that also means that we usually have at least one outstanding job offer available, because it takes a long time to fill it. But that isn’t the topic for this post.

I started programming in school, I was around 14 / 15 at the time, and I picked up a copy of VB 3.0 and did some fairly unimpressive stuff with it. I count my time as a professional since around 1999 or so. That is the time when I started actually dedicating myself to learning programming as something beyond a hobby. That was 15 years ago.

When we started doing a lot of interviews, I noticed that we had the following pattern regarding developers’ availabilities:


That sort of made sense, some people got into software development for the money and left because it didn’t interest them. From the history of Hibernating Rhinos, one of our developers left and is now co-owner in a restaurant, another is a salesman for lasers and other lab stuff.

However, what doesn’t make sense is the ratio that I’m seeing. Where are the people who have been doing software development for decades?

Out of the hundreds of CVs that I have seen, there has been less than 10 that had people over the age of 40. I don’t recall anyone over the age of 50. Note that I’m somewhat biased to hire people with longer experience, because that often means that they don’t need to learn what goes under the hood, they already know.

In fact, looking at the salary tables, there actually isn’t a level of higher than 5 years. After that, you have a team leader position, and then you move into middle management, and then you are basically gone as a developer, I’m guessing.

What is the career path you have as a developer? And note that I’m explicitly throwing out management positions. It seems that those are very rare in our industry.

Microsoft has the notion of Distinguished Engineer and Technical Fellow, for people who actually have decades of experience. In my head, I have this image of a SWAT team that you throw at the hard problems Smile.

Outside of very big companies, those seem to be very rare.  And that is kind of sad.

In Hibernating Rhinos, we plan to actually have those kind of long career paths, but you’ll need to ask me in 10 – 20 years how that turned out to be.


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The holidays, plans & what is next

So, we are done with the holidays here. The last month was basically very little work, because a lot of our people were out for the holidays.

Internally, we are gearing up to finish the website for RavenDB 3.0, while another part of the team is focused on stability and performance. We just hired another new guy, and he is going to be working pretty much on distribution from now on. I’ll report more on that in a few weeks.

Looking at the blog, I’ve mostly been talking about RavenDB, and I want to do a small shift and talk about other topics, so I’m declaring the next two weeks to be RavenDB free weeks. I’m going to continue to blog regularly, of course, but I’m going to be talking about other topics for a change.

Don’t worry, we haven’t stopped working on RavenDB, it is just that it is pretty boring to hear about things like test clusters, or how we work on issues from the people trying out the RC builds.

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Release preps, and my mobile cluster

I just took this picture on my desk. This is a set of machines running a whole set of tests for RavenDB 3.0. On the bottom right, you can see one of our new toys (more below).


This new toy is a NUC (i5, 16 GB, 180 GB SSD). We have a couple of those (and will likely purchase more).

They have a very small form factor, and they are pretty cool machines. We got a few of them so we can have easier time testing distributed systems that are really distributed.

It also has a very nice effect of actually being able to carry around a full cluster and “deploy” it in a few minutes.


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Looking at nopCommerce

I’m preparing for a talk about using multiple databases in a single application, and I wanted to show how this looks like in a real application. I wanted to take a look at nopCommerce as the target application.

To be fair, I haven’t really worked with enterprise applications in a while, but I found some interesting stuff there. Note that I’m not doing anything like a full review. My goal is to show the concept, not explore the full implications of nopCommerce. The code in questions is from commit 1286b4f8d4c0ed2a5d6441db7cbd5398821d32f2.

nopCommerce is using Entity Framework for accessing SQL Server, so it was a simple matter to install the Entity Framework Profiler and take a peek into what was going on there. I then did the simplest thing I could think of, and searched for gift in the site:


Here is what happened:


Now, there are 25 queries, and a total of 40KB of SQL executed. Here is one such query:

SELECT [Project4].[Id]                             AS [Id],
[Project4].[Name] AS [Name],
[Project4].[Description] AS [Description],
[Project4].[CategoryTemplateId] AS [CategoryTemplateId],
[Project4].[MetaKeywords] AS [MetaKeywords],
[Project4].[MetaDescription] AS [MetaDescription],
[Project4].[MetaTitle] AS [MetaTitle],
[Project4].[ParentCategoryId] AS [ParentCategoryId],
[Project4].[PictureId] AS [PictureId],
[Project4].[PageSize] AS [PageSize],
[Project4].[AllowCustomersToSelectPageSize] AS [AllowCustomersToSelectPageSize],
[Project4].[PageSizeOptions] AS [PageSizeOptions],
[Project4].[PriceRanges] AS [PriceRanges],
[Project4].[ShowOnHomePage] AS [ShowOnHomePage],
[Project4].[IncludeInTopMenu] AS [IncludeInTopMenu],
[Project4].[HasDiscountsApplied] AS [HasDiscountsApplied],
[Project4].[SubjectToAcl] AS [SubjectToAcl],
[Project4].[LimitedToStores] AS [LimitedToStores],
[Project4].[Published] AS [Published],
[Project4].[Deleted] AS [Deleted],
[Project4].[DisplayOrder] AS [DisplayOrder],
[Project4].[CreatedOnUtc] AS [CreatedOnUtc],
[Project4].[UpdatedOnUtc] AS [UpdatedOnUtc]
FROM (SELECT [Limit1].[Id] AS [Id],
[Limit1].[Name] AS [Name],
[Limit1].[Description] AS [Description],
[Limit1].[CategoryTemplateId] AS [CategoryTemplateId],
[Limit1].[MetaKeywords] AS [MetaKeywords],
[Limit1].[MetaDescription] AS [MetaDescription],
[Limit1].[MetaTitle] AS [MetaTitle],
[Limit1].[ParentCategoryId] AS [ParentCategoryId],
[Limit1].[PictureId] AS [PictureId],
[Limit1].[PageSize] AS [PageSize],
[Limit1].[AllowCustomersToSelectPageSize] AS [AllowCustomersToSelectPageSize],
[Limit1].[PageSizeOptions] AS [PageSizeOptions],
[Limit1].[PriceRanges] AS [PriceRanges],
[Limit1].[ShowOnHomePage] AS [ShowOnHomePage],
[Limit1].[IncludeInTopMenu] AS [IncludeInTopMenu],
[Limit1].[HasDiscountsApplied] AS [HasDiscountsApplied],
[Limit1].[SubjectToAcl] AS [SubjectToAcl],
[Limit1].[LimitedToStores] AS [LimitedToStores],
[Limit1].[Published] AS [Published],
[Limit1].[Deleted] AS [Deleted],
[Limit1].[DisplayOrder] AS [DisplayOrder],
[Limit1].[CreatedOnUtc] AS [CreatedOnUtc],
[Limit1].[UpdatedOnUtc] AS [UpdatedOnUtc]
FROM (SELECT [Distinct1].[Id] AS [Id]
FROM [dbo].[Category] AS [Extent1]
LEFT OUTER JOIN [dbo].[AclRecord] AS [Extent2]
ON ([Extent1].[Id] = [Extent2].[EntityId])
AND (N'Category' = [Extent2].[EntityName])
LEFT OUTER JOIN [dbo].[StoreMapping] AS [Extent3]
ON ([Extent1].[Id] = [Extent3].[EntityId])
AND (N'Category' = [Extent3].[EntityName])
WHERE ([Extent1].[Published] = 1)
AND ([Extent1].[Deleted] <> cast(1 as bit))
AND (([Extent1].[SubjectToAcl] <> cast(1 as bit))
OR (([Extent2].[CustomerRoleId] IN (4))
AND ([Extent2].[CustomerRoleId] IS NOT NULL)))
AND (([Extent1].[LimitedToStores] <> cast(1 as bit))
OR (1 /* @p__linq__0 */ = [Extent3].[StoreId]))) AS [Distinct1]) AS [Project2]
OUTER APPLY (SELECT TOP (1) [Filter2].[Id1] AS [Id],
[Filter2].[Name] AS [Name],
[Filter2].[Description] AS [Description],
[Filter2].[CategoryTemplateId] AS [CategoryTemplateId],
[Filter2].[MetaKeywords] AS [MetaKeywords],
[Filter2].[MetaDescription] AS [MetaDescription],
[Filter2].[MetaTitle] AS [MetaTitle],
[Filter2].[ParentCategoryId] AS [ParentCategoryId],
[Filter2].[PictureId] AS [PictureId],
[Filter2].[PageSize] AS [PageSize],
[Filter2].[AllowCustomersToSelectPageSize] AS [AllowCustomersToSelectPageSize],
[Filter2].[PageSizeOptions] AS [PageSizeOptions],
[Filter2].[PriceRanges] AS [PriceRanges],
[Filter2].[ShowOnHomePage] AS [ShowOnHomePage],
[Filter2].[IncludeInTopMenu] AS [IncludeInTopMenu],
[Filter2].[HasDiscountsApplied] AS [HasDiscountsApplied],
[Filter2].[SubjectToAcl] AS [SubjectToAcl],
[Filter2].[LimitedToStores] AS [LimitedToStores],
[Filter2].[Published] AS [Published],
[Filter2].[Deleted] AS [Deleted],
[Filter2].[DisplayOrder] AS [DisplayOrder],
[Filter2].[CreatedOnUtc] AS [CreatedOnUtc],
[Filter2].[UpdatedOnUtc] AS [UpdatedOnUtc]
FROM (SELECT [Extent4].[Id] AS [Id1],
[Extent4].[Name] AS [Name],
[Extent4].[Description] AS [Description],
[Extent4].[CategoryTemplateId] AS [CategoryTemplateId],
[Extent4].[MetaKeywords] AS [MetaKeywords],
[Extent4].[MetaDescription] AS [MetaDescription],
[Extent4].[MetaTitle] AS [MetaTitle],
[Extent4].[ParentCategoryId] AS [ParentCategoryId],
[Extent4].[PictureId] AS [PictureId],
[Extent4].[PageSize] AS [PageSize],
[Extent4].[AllowCustomersToSelectPageSize] AS [AllowCustomersToSelectPageSize],
[Extent4].[PageSizeOptions] AS [PageSizeOptions],
[Extent4].[PriceRanges] AS [PriceRanges],
[Extent4].[ShowOnHomePage] AS [ShowOnHomePage],
[Extent4].[IncludeInTopMenu] AS [IncludeInTopMenu],
[Extent4].[HasDiscountsApplied] AS [HasDiscountsApplied],
[Extent4].[SubjectToAcl] AS [SubjectToAcl],
[Extent4].[LimitedToStores] AS [LimitedToStores],
[Extent4].[Published] AS [Published],
[Extent4].[Deleted] AS [Deleted],
[Extent4].[DisplayOrder] AS [DisplayOrder],
[Extent4].[CreatedOnUtc] AS [CreatedOnUtc],
[Extent4].[UpdatedOnUtc] AS [UpdatedOnUtc]
FROM [dbo].[Category] AS [Extent4]
LEFT OUTER JOIN [dbo].[AclRecord] AS [Extent5]
ON ([Extent4].[Id] = [Extent5].[EntityId])
AND (N'Category' = [Extent5].[EntityName])
WHERE ([Extent4].[Published] = 1)
AND ([Extent4].[Deleted] <> cast(1 as bit))
AND (([Extent4].[SubjectToAcl] <> cast(1 as bit))
OR (([Extent5].[CustomerRoleId] IN (4))
AND ([Extent5].[CustomerRoleId] IS NOT NULL)))) AS [Filter2]
LEFT OUTER JOIN [dbo].[StoreMapping] AS [Extent6]
ON ([Filter2].[Id1] = [Extent6].[EntityId])
AND (N'Category' = [Extent6].[EntityName])
WHERE (([Filter2].[LimitedToStores] <> cast(1 as bit))
OR (1 /* @p__linq__0 */ = [Extent6].[StoreId]))
AND ([Project2].[Id] = [Filter2].[Id1])) AS [Limit1]) AS [Project4]
ORDER BY [Project4].[ParentCategoryId] ASC,
[Project4].[DisplayOrder] ASC

For reference, here is the query plan for this:



Note that all of this is generated for the products is not done via EntityFramework. That is done via the ProductLoadAllPaged stored procedure. That is 620 lines of code, includes dynamic SQL generation and several temp tables.

At that point, I actually looked at the code, and it isn’t something that I can actually make easy modifications to, at least not without spending way too long trying to understand what is going on for it to be worth it for a single presentation. So I’m going to leave this aside and look at another app. Probably a sample site, nopCommerce has 44 projects and Orchard has 77 projects. That is too big to actually be able to talk about concisely in a talk.


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RavenFS and NServiceBus’ Data Bus

The NServiceBus data bus allows you to send very large messages by putting them on a shared resource and sending the reference to it. An obvious use case for this is using RavenFS. I took a few moments and wrote an implementation for that*.

public class RavenFSDataBus : IDataBus, IDisposable
private readonly FilesStore _filesStore;
private Timer _timer;

private object _locker = new object();
private void RunExpiration(object state)
bool lockTaken = false;
Monitor.TryEnter(_locker, ref lockTaken);
if (lockTaken == false)

using (var session = _filesStore.OpenAsyncSession())
var files = session.Query()
.WhereLessThan("Time-To-Be-Received", DateTime.UtcNow.ToString("O"))


foreach (var fileHeader in files.Result)

if (lockTaken)

public RavenFSDataBus(string connectionString)
_filesStore = new FilesStore
ConnectionStringName = connectionString

public RavenFSDataBus(FilesStore filesStore)
_filesStore = filesStore;

public Stream Get(string key)
return _filesStore.AsyncFilesCommands.DownloadAsync(key).Result;

public string Put(Stream stream, TimeSpan timeToBeReceived)
var key = "/data-bus/" + Guid.NewGuid();
_filesStore.AsyncFilesCommands.UploadAsync(key, stream, new RavenJObject
{"Time-To-Be-Received", DateTime.UtcNow.Add(timeToBeReceived).ToString("O")}

return key;

public void Start()
_filesStore.Initialize(ensureFileSystemExists: true);
_timer = new Timer(RunExpiration);
_timer.Change(TimeSpan.FromMinutes(1), TimeSpan.FromMinutes(1));

public void Dispose()
if (_timer != null)
if (_filesStore != null)

* This is written to check it out, hasn’t been tested very well yet.


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Complex nested structures in RavenDB

This started out as a question in the mailing list. Consider the following (highly simplified) model:

   public class Building
       public string Name { get; set; }
       public List<Floor> Floors { get; set; }        
   public class Floor
       public int Number { get; set; }
       public List<Apartment> Apartments { get; set; }
   public class Apartment
       public string ApartmentNumber { get; set; }
       public int SquareFeet { get; set; }

And here you can see an actual document:

    "Name": "Corex's Building - Herzliya",
    "Floors": [
            "Number": 1,
            "Apartments": [
                    "ApartmentNumber": 102,
                    "SquareFeet": 260
                    "ApartmentNumber": 104,
                    "SquareFeet": 260
                    "ApartmentNumber": 107,
                    "SquareFeet": 460
            "Number": 2,
            "Apartments": [
                    "ApartmentNumber": 201,
                    "SquareFeet": 260
                    "ApartmentNumber": 203,
                    "SquareFeet": 660

Usually the user is working with the Building document. But every now an then, they need to show just a specific apartment.

Normally, I would tell them that they can just load the relevant document and extract the inner information on the client, that is very cheap to do. And that is still the recommendation. But I thought that I would use this opportunity to show off some features that don’t get their due exposure.

We then define the following index:


Note that we can use the Query() method to fetch the query specific parameter from the user. Then we just search the data for the relevant item.

From the client code, this will look like:

var q = session.Query<Building>()
    .Where(b =>/* some query for building */)
    .TransformWith<SingleApartment, Apartment>()
    .AddTransformerParameter("apartmentNumber", 201)

var apartment = session.Load<SingleApartment, Apartment>("building/123",
        configuration => configuration.AddTransformerParameter("apartmentNumber", 102));

And that is all there is to it.


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Mono frustrations

I’m porting Voron to Mono (currently testing on Ubuntu). I’m using Mono 3.2.8, FWIW, and working in MonoDevelop.

So far, I have run into the following tangles that are annoying.  Attempting to write to memory that is write protected results in null reference exception, instead of access violation exception. I suspect that this is done because NRE is generated on any SIGSEGV, but that led me to a very different path of discovery.

Also, consider the following code:

using System.IO;
using System.IO.Compression;

namespace HelloWorld
class MainClass

public static void Main (string[] args)
new ZipArchive (new MemoryStream ());

This results in the following error:

Unhandled Exception:
    System.NotImplementedException: The requested feature is not implemented.
        at HelloWorld.MainClass.Main (System.String[] args) [0x00006] in /home/ayende/HelloWorld/HelloWorld/Program.cs:11
        [ERROR] FATAL UNHANDLED EXCEPTION: System.NotImplementedException: The requested feature is not implemented.
        at HelloWorld.MainClass.Main (System.String[] args) [0x00006] in /home/ayende/HelloWorld/HelloWorld/Program.cs:11

This is annoying in that it isn’t implemented, but worse from my point of view is that I don’t see any ZipArchive in the stack trace. That made me think that it was my code that was throwing this.


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RavenDB 3.0–Release Candidate & Go Live

Update: We delayed the RC release by a week or two because we wanted to finish the new website. But I decided that it doesn't make sense to at least give you the RC bits so you can play with them. You can look at the new website at http://beta.ravendb.net, it should be done in about a week (we are in a holidays period right now, which slow things down). 

I’m taking a break from explaining what is new in RavenDB 3.0 because we have more important news. This is still release candidate, because we want to get more feedback from the field before we can say that this is a final version. The plan is to give the RC a few weeks to mature, and then make a full release. This also comes with Go Live version, so this is fully support for production (and much easier to deal with on production).

This release also include a new website for RavenDB, as well as the updated licensing. Note that we provide a 20% discount for purchases during the RC period. For customers that purchased a RavenDB license since 1 Jul 2014, can upgrade (for no cost) to a RavenDB 3.0 release.

You can go to our site to see how things changes.



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Working on Voron…

This took a bit less than what I expected, but…


And yes, it works. And this is running on Ubuntu.

And no, it isn’t ready.


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Google Domains won’t take my money

This is frustrating. I’m trying to use the new Google Domains (if only because I’m sick of GoDaddy’s aggressive upsale approach).

This is what happened when I tried it.


That sucks, but I’m actually a business user for Google Apps, so I called their support. I’m currently on the 32th minute of the call, and so far they explained to me numerous times that this is not possible to do, and are still unable to tell me why they are refusing to take my card.

I can understand, beta service and all of that, but using Wallet isn’t beta, and not being able to tell me what is wrong is not cool.


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RavenDB Recognized in DZone’s 2014 Guide to Big Data


I’m excited to get to tell you that RavenDB is a  featured vendor in DZone’s 2014 Guide to Big Data. The guide includes expert opinions and tips, industry knowledge, and data platform and database comparisons. And it would give you a good background information about the different NoSQL solutions that are currently available.

Readers can download a free copy of the guide here.


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Optimizing event processing

During the RavenDB Days conference, I got a lot of questions from customers. Here is one of them.

There is a migration process that deals with event sourcing system. So we have 10,000,000 commits with 5 – 50 events per commit. Each event result in a property update to an entity.

That gives us roughly 300,000,000 events to process. The trivial way to solve this would be:

foreach(var commit in YieldAllCommits())
using(var session = docStore.OpenSession())
foreach(var evnt in commit.Events)
var entity = evnt.Load<Customer>(evnt.EntityId);

That works, but it tends to be slow. Worse case here would result in 310,000,000 requests to the server.

Note that this has the nice property that all the changes in a commit are saved in a single commit. We’re going to relax this behavior, and use something better here.

We’ll take the implementation of this LRU cache and add an event for dropping from the cache and iteration.

usging(var bulk = docStore.BulkInsert(allowUpdates: true))
var cache = new LeastRecentlyUsedCache<string, Customer>(capacity: 10 * 1000);
cache.OnEvict = c => bulk.Store(c);
foreach(var commit in YieldAllCommits())
using(var session = docStore.OpenSession())
foreach(var evnt in commit.Events)
Customer entity;
if(cache.TryGetValue(evnt.EventId, out entity) == false)
using(var session = docStore.OpenSession())
entity = session.Load<Customer>(evnt.EventId);
cache.Set(evnt.EventId, entity);
foreach(var kvp in cache){

Here we are using a cache of 10,000 items. With the assumption that we are going to have clustering for events on entities, so a lot of changes on an entity will happen on roughly the same time. We take advantage of that to try to only load each document once. We use bulk insert to flush those changes to the server when needed. This code will handle the case where we flushed out a document from the cache then we get events for it again, but he assumption is that this scenario is much lower.

What is new in RavenDB 3.0: Meta discussion

This is a big release, it is a big deal for us.

It took me 18(!) blog posts to discuss just the items that we wanted highlighted, out of over twelve hundred resolved issues and tens of thousands of commits by a pretty large team.

Even at a rate of two posts a day, this still took two weeks to go through.

We are also working on the new book, multiple events coming up as well as laying down the plans for RavenDB vNext. All of this is very exciting, but for now, I want to ask your opinion. Based on the previous posts in this series, and based on your own initial impressions of RavenDB, what do you think?

This is me signing off, quite tired.


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What is new in RavenDB 3.0: Operations–Optimizations

One of the important roles operations has is going to an existing server and checking if everything is fine. This is routine maintenance stuff. It can be things like checking if we have enough disk space for our expected growth, or if we don’t have too many indexes.

Here is some data from this blog’s production system:


Note that we have the squeeze button, for when you need to squeeze every bit of perf out of the system. Let us see what happens when I click it (I used a different production db, because this one was already optimized).

Here is what we get:


You can see that RavenDB suggest that we’ll merge indexes, so we can reduce the overall number of indexes we have.

We can also see recommendations for deleting unused indexes in general.

The idea is that we keep track of those stats and allow you to make decisions based on those stats. So you don’t have to go by gut feeling or guesses.


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What is new in RavenDB 3.0: Operations–the nitty gritty details

After looking at all the pretty pictures, let us take a look at what we have available for us for behind the cover for ops.

The first such change is abandoning performance counters. In 2.5, we reported a lot of our state through performance counters. However, while they are a standard tool and easy to work with using admin tools, they were also unworkable. We have had multiple times where RavenDB would hang because performance counters were corrupted, they require specific permissions and in general they were a lot of hassle. Instead of relying on performance counters, we are now using the metrics.net package to handle that. This gives us a lot more flexibility. We can now generate a lot more metrics, and we have. All of those are available in the /debug/metrics endpoint, and on the studio as well.

Another major change we did was to consolidate all of the database administration details to a centralized location:

Manage your server gives us all the tools we need to manage the databases on this server.


You can manage permissions, backup and restore, watch what is going on and in general do admin style operations.


In particular, note that we made it slightly harder to use the system database. The intent now is that the system database is reserved for managing the RavenDB server itself, and all users’ data will reside in their own databases.

You can also start a compaction directly from the studio:



Compactions are good if you want to ask RavenDB to return some disk space to the OS (by default we reserve it for our own usage).

Restore & backup are possible via the studio, but usually, admins want to script those out. We had Raven.Backup.exe to handle scripted backup for a while now. And you could restore using Raven.Server.exe --restore  from the command line.

The problem was that this restored the database to disk,  but didn’t wire it to the server, so you had the extra step of doing that. This was useful for restoring system databases, not so much for named databases.

We now have:

  • Raven.Server.exe  --restore-system-database --restore-source=C:\backups\system\2014-09-17 --restore-destination=C:\Raven\Data\System
  • Raven.Serve.exe --restore-database=http://localhost:8080 --restore-source=C:\backups\RealEstateRUs\2014-09-17 --restore-database-name=C:\Raven\Data\Databases\RealEstateRUs

Which make a clear distinction between those operations.

Another related issue is how Smuggler handles error. Previously, the full export process had to complete successfully for you to have a valid output. Now we are more robust for errors such as unreliable network or timeouts. That means that if your network has a tendency to cut connections off at the knee, you will be able to resume (assuming you use incremental export) and still get your data.

We have also made a lot of changes in the Smuggler to make it work more nicely in common deployment scenarios, where request size and time are usually limited. The whole process is more robust for errors now.

Speaking of making things more robust, another area where we put attention to was memory usage over time. Beyond just reducing our memory usage in common scenarios, we have also improved our GC story. We can now invoke explicit GCs when we know that we created a lot of garbage that needs to be rid off. We’ll also invoke Large Object Heap compaction if needed, utilizing the new features in the .NET framework.

That is quite enough for a single post, but still doesn’t cover all the operations change, I’ll cover the stuff that should make your drool on the next post.


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What is new in RavenDB 3.0: Operations–production view

One of the most challenging things to do in production is to know what is going on? In order to facilitate that, we have dedicate some time to exposing the internal guts of RavenDB to the outside world (assuming that the outside world has the appropriate permissions).

One way to look at that is to subscribe to the log stream from RavenDB, you can do it like this:


This gives you the following:


Note that this requires no configuration changes, or restarting the server or database. As long as your logs subscription is active, we’ll send you a live stream of all the log activity in RavenDB, which should allow you to get a lot of useful insights about what exactly it is that RavenDB is doing.

This is especially important if you need to do any sort of trouble shooting, because that is when you need to have logs, and restarting the server to enable them is often out of the question (it would likely resolve the issue you want to understand). And honestly, this is a feature that we need to support customers, it is going to be much easier to just say “let us look at the logs”, rather than having to go over how to configure them, etc. Another thing to note is the fact that this can all be done remotely, you don’t have to have access to the physical server. It does require you to have admin permissions on the server, so not any user can do that.

Another production view that is available to you is the Traffic Watcher:


This gives you the option of looking at the requests that are actually hitting the server. It is a subset of information from the logs, but it is usually a lot more interesting to watch. And again, this can be done remotely as well. You can watch all databases, or just a single one.

But most importantly from support perspective is the new Debug Info! package. And yes, it deserver the bang in the name. What this does is gather a lot of important information from the database, all the current stats, and a lot of stuff that we need to figure out what is going on. The idea is that if you have a problem, we won’t have to ask for a lot of separate pieces of information, you can get it all as a single shot.

Oh, and we can also grab the actual stack trace information from your system, so we even know exactly what your system is doing.

In my next post, I’ll discuss one last operational concern, optimizations.


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