Here is something that suddenly dawned at me as I was going through the LMDB codebase. LMDB is actually how Esent works. In fact, going through LMDB codebase I am in a much better position to understand how Esent works.
For example, Esent is limited to 16TB per database. I did some math to figure out the max size of a LMDB db that used 32bits for page number and I got to 2 ** 32 times 4,096 == 16 TB, and that isn’t a coincidence. And all the background information in the Esent API that talk about large values, for example. That is how LMDB does overflow, and tables are implemented as additional B-Trees (what LMDB calls dbs).
At some point I was going through this in my head and realized that indexes are also working in the exact same way, and so does pretty much everything else. What Esent does on top is provide better concurrency (LMDB allows only a single writer), and a whole lot of additional features (schemas, secondary indexes, etc).
But I think that the major difference from my point of view is that I had a theoretical idea about how Esent really worked, under the covers. Now I feel like I actually grok things at a much better level. For instance, Esent will not give back space to the operating system, even if you deleted stuff. I knew that, and just accepted that as how it worked. But now I can understand why it doesn’t do that. Or the MAX_VER_PAGES setting, I knew what it purpose was, and how it impacted operations (it is the amount of changes that can be pending). But after reading LMDB dirty_pages and its limit, I understand the why and how it works at a much deeper level.
To be honest, I kept reading LMDB codebase purely because I wasn’t going to let that code beat me, but it is very educational.